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Stars Star naming VideoExoplanets 101 - National Geographic
Online Casinos Tipp Kick Spieler die Stars halten. - Aktuelle StarporträtsWir empfehlen unseren kostenlosen t-online. Stars are huge celestial bodies made mostly of hydrogen and helium that produce light and heat from the churning nuclear forges inside their cores. Aside from our sun, the dots of light we see in. Stars and planetary systems in fiction Other stars [ edit ] The following is a list of particularly notable actual or hypothetical stars that have their own articles in Wikipedia, but are not included in the lists above. Beta The Interactive Night Sky Map simulates the sky above New York on a date of your choice. Use it to locate a planet, the Moon, or the Sun and track their movements across the sky. Giant stars have a much lower surface gravity than do main sequence stars, while the opposite is the case for degenerate, compact stars such as white dwarfs. The surface gravity can influence the appearance of a star's spectrum, with higher gravity causing a broadening of the absorption lines. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us.
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Turbulence deep within these clouds gives rise to knots with sufficient mass that the gas and dust can begin to collapse under its own gravitational attraction.
As the cloud collapses, the material at the center begins to heat up. Known as a protostar, it is this hot core at the heart of the collapsing cloud that will one day become a star.
Three-dimensional computer models of star formation predict that the spinning clouds of collapsing gas and dust may break up into two or three blobs; this would explain why the majority the stars in the Milky Way are paired or in groups of multiple stars.
As the cloud collapses, a dense, hot core forms and begins gathering dust and gas. Not all of this material ends up as part of a star — the remaining dust can become planets, asteroids, or comets or may remain as dust.
In some cases, the cloud may not collapse at a steady pace. In January , an amateur astronomer, James McNeil, discovered a small nebula that appeared unexpectedly near the nebula Messier 78, in the constellation of Orion.
When observers around the world pointed their instruments at McNeil's Nebula , they found something interesting — its brightness appears to vary.
Observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provided a likely explanation: the interaction between the young star's magnetic field and the surrounding gas causes episodic increases in brightness.
A star the size of our Sun requires about 50 million years to mature from the beginning of the collapse to adulthood.
Our Sun will stay in this mature phase on the main sequence as shown in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram for approximately 10 billion years.
Stars are fueled by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen to form helium deep in their interiors. The outflow of energy from the central regions of the star provides the pressure necessary to keep the star from collapsing under its own weight, and the energy by which it shines.
As shown in the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, Main Sequence stars span a wide range of luminosities and colors, and can be classified according to those characteristics.
Despite their diminutive nature, red dwarfs are by far the most numerous stars in the Universe and have lifespans of tens of billions of years.
On the other hand, the most massive stars, known as hypergiants, may be or more times more massive than the Sun, and have surface temperatures of more than 30, K.
Hypergiants emit hundreds of thousands of times more energy than the Sun, but have lifetimes of only a few million years.
Although extreme stars such as these are believed to have been common in the early Universe, today they are extremely rare - the entire Milky Way galaxy contains only a handful of hypergiants.
In general, the larger a star, the shorter its life, although all but the most massive stars live for billions of years. When a star has fused all the hydrogen in its core, nuclear reactions cease.
Deprived of the energy production needed to support it, the core begins to collapse into itself and becomes much hotter. Hydrogen is still available outside the core, so hydrogen fusion continues in a shell surrounding the core.
The increasingly hot core also pushes the outer layers of the star outward, causing them to expand and cool, transforming the star into a red giant.
If the star is sufficiently massive, the collapsing core may become hot enough to support more exotic nuclear reactions that consume helium and produce a variety of heavier elements up to iron.
However, such reactions offer only a temporary reprieve. Gradually, the star's internal nuclear fires become increasingly unstable - sometimes burning furiously, other times dying down.
These variations cause the star to pulsate and throw off its outer layers, enshrouding itself in a cocoon of gas and dust. What happens next depends on the size of the core.
Universe Learn About This Image. Stars Stars are the most widely recognized astronomical objects, and represent the most fundamental building blocks of galaxies.
Star Formation Stars are born within the clouds of dust and scattered throughout most galaxies. Black Holes. The Big Bang. Helpful Links Organization and Staff.
Astrophysics Fleet Mission Chart. Spacecraft Paper Models. In , the first radio telescope was built, enabling astronomers to detect otherwise invisible radiation from stars.
The first gamma-ray telescope launched in , pioneering the study of star explosions supernovae. Also in the s, astronomers commenced infrared observations using balloon-borne telescopes, gathering information about stars and other objects based on their heat emissions; the first infrared telescope the Infrared Astronomical Satellite launched in Microwave emissions are generally used to probe the young universe's origins, but they are occasionally used to study stars.
In , the first space-based optical telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope , was launched, providing the deepest, most detailed visible-light view of the universe.
There have been, of course, more advanced observatories in all wavelengths over the years, and even more powerful ones are planned. A couple of examples are the European Extremely Large Telescope E-ELT , which is planned to start observations in in infrared and optical wavelengths.
Ancient cultures saw patterns in the heavens that resembled people, animals or common objects — constellations that came to represent figures from myth, such as Orion the Hunter, a hero in Greek mythology.
Astronomers now often use constellations in the naming of stars. The International Astronomical Union, the world authority for assigning names to celestial objects, officially recognizes 88 constellations.
Usually, the brightest star in a constellation has "alpha," the first letter of the Greek alphabet, as part of its scientific name.
The second brightest star in a constellation is typically designated "beta," the third brightest "gamma," and so on until all the Greek letters are used, after which numerical designations follow.
A number of stars have possessed names since antiquity — Betelgeuse , for instance, means "the hand or the armpit of the giant" in Arabic. It is the brightest star in Orion, and its scientific name is Alpha Orionis.
Also, different astronomers over the years have compiled star catalogs that use unique numbering systems. The Henry Draper Catalog, named after a pioneer in astrophotography, provides spectral classification and rough positions for , stars and has been widely used of by the astronomical community for over half a century.
The catalog designates Betelgeuse as HD Since there are so many stars in the universe, the IAU uses a different system for newfound stars.
Most consist of an abbreviation that stands for either the type of star or a catalog that lists information about the star, followed by a group of symbols.
The J reveals that a coordinate system known as J is being used, while the and are coordinates similar to the latitude and longitude codes used on Earth.
In recent years, the IAU formalized several names for stars amid calls from the astronomical community to include the public in their naming process.
The IAU formalized 14 star names in the "Name ExoWorlds" contest , taking suggestions from science and astronomy clubs around the world.
Then in , the IAU approved star names , mostly taking cues from antiquity in making its decision. The goal was to reduce variations in star names and also spelling "Formalhaut", for example, had 30 recorded variations.
However, the long-standing name "Alpha Centauri" — referring to a famous star system with planets just four light years from Earth — was replaced with Rigel Kentaurus.
A star develops from a giant, slowly rotating cloud that is made up entirely or almost entirely of hydrogen and helium.
Due to its own gravitational pull, the cloud behind to collapse inward, and as it shrinks, it spins more and more quickly, with the outer parts becoming a disk while the innermost parts become a roughly spherical clump.
According to NASA, this collapsing material grows hotter and denser, forming a ball-shaped protostar.
When the heat and pressure in the protostar reaches about 1. Nuclear fusion converts a small amount of the mass of these atoms into extraordinary amounts of energy — for instance, 1 gram of mass converted entirely to energy would be equal to an explosion of roughly 22, tons of TNT.
The life cycles of stars follow patterns based mostly on their initial mass. These include intermediate-mass stars such as the sun, with half to eight times the mass of the sun, high-mass stars that are more than eight solar masses, and low-mass stars a tenth to half a solar mass in size.
The greater a star's mass, the shorter its lifespan generally is. Objects smaller than a tenth of a solar mass do not have enough gravitational pull to ignite nuclear fusion — some might become failed stars known as brown dwarfs.
An intermediate-mass star begins with a cloud that takes about , years to collapse into a protostar with a surface temperature of about 6, F 3, C.
After hydrogen fusion starts, the result is a T-Tauri star , a variable star that fluctuates in brightness. This star continues to collapse for roughly 10 million years until its expansion due to energy generated by nuclear fusion is balanced by its contraction from gravity, after which point it becomes a main-sequence star that gets all its energy from hydrogen fusion in its core.
The greater the mass of such a star, the more quickly it will use its hydrogen fuel and the shorter it stays on the main sequence. After all the hydrogen in the core is fused into helium, the star changes rapidly — without nuclear radiation to resist it, gravity immediately crushes matter down into the star's core, quickly heating the star.
This causes the star's outer layers to expand enormously and to cool and glow red as they do so, rendering the star a red giant.
Helium starts fusing together in the core, and once the helium is gone, the core contracts and becomes hotter, once more expanding the star but making it bluer and brighter than before, blowing away its outermost layers.
After the expanding shells of gas fade, the remaining core is left, a white dwarf that consists mostly of carbon and oxygen with an initial temperature of roughly , degrees F , degrees C.
Since white dwarves have no fuel left for fusion, they grow cooler and cooler over billions of years to become black dwarves too faint to detect.